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The theory that an action and its worth should be judged on utility and its benefit to others.
The many building blocks of society fit together in complex patterns. Understanding this puzzle makes a man wise indeed. Theorists are now using utilitarianism, in an attempt to understand these complexities. This school of thought holds that human will, by its very nature, seeks to serve its own interests. Utilitarianism proposes that in order for a society to function successfully people must begin to consider the utility of their actions and how they affect society as a whole.
Historically, utilitarianism concentrated on the needs of the many outweighing the needs of the few. The leading mind in this field was Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), who maintained that nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. He believed that these two factors made mankind infinitely governable, as long as leaders exploited these weaknesses without exploiting those they govern.
In addition to the increase to town wealth and decrease to happiness most philosophy technologies grant, Utilitarianism is required for upgrading schools, thereby increasing research rates and unlocking access to more of the enlightenment tech tree. As Classical Universities are expensive (at 4,000 gold each), saving some money before completing research of this technology allows it to fulfill its potential in the shortest possible time.