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A well-organised supply system mitigates any losses suffered by armies on campaign and in battle.
A supply system can aid in making sure that the attrition inevitably suffered by military units in hostile lands is reduced: soldiers who are properly supplied with all their necessaries are less likely to die or desert. The same system that can deliver a musket or a barrel of gunpowder to the front can also be used to send replacement soldiers forward as well.
Before gunpowder, armies could support themselves entirely by pillaging, even if this did ruin any land they crossed. This changed with the introduction of gunpowder, as it could rarely be stolen, and could not be manufactured on the march; a transportation system and supply dumps became absolutely vital.
The writings of Antoine-Henri Jomini, a Frenchman and eventually a Russian general officer, did much to advance the understanding of logistics, the art of military supply. His career included training to be a banker, and time working for an arms manufacturer, but his skills came to the fore when he was a secretary in the Swiss Ministry of War, in charge of reorganising the way the business of war was conducted. This gave him the grounding he needed for his organisational and supply work.
Along with Field Ambulances, Logistics are one of the only technologies that increase the rate of Replenishment. This effect stacks with any effects granted by buildings or general traits, allowing regiments to return to fighting strength more quickly. The increased movement range this technology grants also aids the ability of troops to quickly reach fights once they have sufficiently recovered.